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Glossary of education terms

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A
Aspergers Syndrome (AS) - a neurobiological disorder, usually classified at the "high-end" of the Autistic Spectrum. Symptoms range from mild to severe, but include social, behavioral and communicative impairments. Individuals exhibit serious deficiencies in social and communication skills. They often have obsessive repetitive routines and preoccupations with a particular subject. Because of their high degree of functionality and their naivete, those with AS are often viewed by their peers as odd, and are frequently a target for bullying.

Some symptoms may include:
  • socially awkward
  • naive and gullible
  • often unaware of others' feelings
  • unable to carry on a two-sided conversation
  • easily upset by changes in routines and transitions
  • literal in speech and understanding
  • overly sensitive to loud sounds, lights or smells
  • fixated on one topic
  • physically awkward in sports
  • unusually accurate memory for details
  • sleeping problems
  • eating problems
  • trouble understanding things they have heard or read
  • unusual body language or facial expression
  • unusual speech patterns (repetitive or irrelevant remarks)
  • stilted, formal manner of speaking
  • unusually loud, high or monotonous voice
  • tendency to rock, fidget or pace while concentrating
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or Hyperkinetic Disorder - a syndrome (a group of symptoms or signs) that is usually characterized by the inability to maintain attention and poor impulse control. brain: that part of the central nervous system that includes all the higher nervous centers; enclosed within the skull; continuous with the spinal cord. learning - the acquisition of knowledge or skill. It occurs in, and may lead to changes in, the brain.
Auditory Learner - Somebody who learns optimally with their ears, typically by listening or discussing a topic. Also see visual learner, tactile learner, kinesthetic learner.

D
Dyslexia - Also known as reading disorder, is characterised by reading ability (e.g., reading accuracy, speed and comprehension ) that falls substantially below the expected levels. As a difficulty with written language, dyslexia affects reading, spelling, writing, memory and concentration. Although sometimes defined as a disorder where letters or words are read or written backwards, e.g., a "d" confudes with a "b", it is important to realise that beginner readers will usually confuse similar-looking letters as part of their normal learning process.
Dysomnia - A marked difficulty in remembering names and recalling words needed for oral and written language.
Dyspraxia - A severe difficulty in performing drawing, writing, buttoning, and other tasks requiring fine motor skills, or in sequencing the necessary movements.

G
Gifted Learner - endowed with talent or talents, considered by educational systems to have significantly higher than normal levels of one or more forms of intelligence.

H
Hyperkinetic Disorder - see ADHD

K
Kinesthetic Learner - Somebody who learns optimally with their body actions, such as games or field trips. Also see visual learner, auditory learner, tactile learner.

L
Learning Tools - tools that enhance the learning experience, typically by providing multi-sensory stimuli. Such tools include electro-boards, learning circles, flip chutes, audio tapes and videos.
Learning Disability - A disorder in basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or use mathematical calculations.
Learning Style - the way you learn, your optimal way of understanding and remembering information.
Left Brain Hemisphere - the cerebral hemisphere to the left of the corpus callosum that controls the right half of the body. The left-brain, in contrast, governs logical thinking such as language, analysis, and consciousness. Also see: right hemisphere, sequential processing, simultaneous processing.

R
Right Brain Hemisphere - the cerebral hemisphere to the right of the corpus callosum that controls the left half of the body. The right brain governs sensitivity, rhythm, and intuition. Also see: left hemisphere, sequential processing, simultaneous processing.

S
Sequential Processing - the ability or preference to work on one task until it's finished before moving to another task. Please see /About-Learning-Styles-Pyramid-Model.html.
Simultaneous Processing - the ability or preference to multitask, i.e., to for on the two (or more) tasks together. Please see /About-Learning-Styles-Pyramid-Model.html.
Streaming - A type of school organisation where children are placed according to their ability into groups in which they stay for most of their work.

T
Tactile Learner - Somebody who learns optimally with their hands, typically by holding, touching or manipulating learning aids. Also see visual learner, auditory learner, kinesthetic learner.

U
Underachiever - a student who fails to achieve his or her potential and does not do as well as expected

V
Vertical grouping - Classes formed in primary schools from children of different age-groups.
Visual Learner - Somebody who learns optimally with their eyes, typically by observing, watching or visualising. Also see tactile learner, auditory learner, kinesthetic learner.